Surprising differences of JavaScript and Python

JavaScript and Python are two programming languages that you’ll hear a lot about as you begin to look into IT careers. But, even though they’re frequently compared, it’s not a competition. Both languages are capable of producing high-quality websites, web apps, and software programs. Each has its own set of strengths (which occasionally overlap), as well as some distinct differences.

If you’re ready to finally figure out what the surprising difference between Python and JavaScript is, let’s compare the two languages and learn what they’re all about.

Let’s dive into key differences:

1.    JavaScript:

The first thing to remember is JavaScript is a scripting language, which means each instruction or line is interpreted (not compiled) by the web browser one by one during runtime. As a result, JavaScript is implemented on the client side. It does, however, include engines that offer server-side implementations. In reality, the popularity of Node.js has fueled the expansion of JavaScript as a server-side programming language. Nonetheless, it is sometimes seen as unsuitable for large and complicated systems since it gets more difficult to keep and reuse code as the application expands.

2.    Python:

Python, on the other hand, can be used as a scripting language because it is a general-purpose programming language. In other words, Python is a general-purpose language of programming that can also be used as a scripting language, rather than just a scripting language. Python is also an object-oriented programming language that is primarily utilized on the server side. During runtime, its instructions are compiled to bytecode, which is then executed by an interpreter. Although less widespread, it can also be utilized as a front-end language.

Before diving into the fundamental distinctions between Python and JavaScript, it’s crucial to note that one language does not always imply the other. In reality, by employing Python on the server-side and JavaScript on the client side, Python and JavaScript can complement each other and make the most of their strengths. For example, Instagram’s backend is built with Python (and Django), while the interface is built with native programming languages and JavaScript.

Feature-wise differences between JavaScript and Python:

1.    Popularity

JavaScript has been the most prominent programming language for several years, according to The 2020 State of the October, and has an unquestionably high status among developers. Python, on the other hand, is a serious contender for the throne. Its popularity has skyrocketed in recent years (especially since 2018), owing to the creation of excellent web development frameworks (such as Django) and its status as the go-to language for data research and machine learning.

2.    Performance

One of JavaScript’s key goals was to make the web faster. Node.js offers faster performance than Python due to its advanced multithreading capabilities. In contrast to Python, it must handle all requests in a single flow.

On the one hand, JavaScript is frequently used in apps that demand dynamic and real-time interactions to avoid having consumers wait. Python, on the other hand, is the best choice for processing large volumes of data and solving a specific machine learning problem. Even when dealing with CPU-intensive circumstances or sophisticated computations employing GPUs, it stands out for its readability and ease of use.

Furthermore, while Python may take a slower to reply, there are a couple of techniques to boost its performance, such as using NumPy and Cython to benefit from the C programming language. Cython is a Python compiler that allows programmers to write fast C modules that speed up the execution of Python programs.

3.    Scalability

Python employs the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), which makes concurrent programming more challenging. GIL guarantees that only one thread operates at a time, making the utilization of many processors with threads more difficult (if not impossible). To solve this problem, Python developers can use the multiprocessing package, which allows them to distribute work over numerous processes by utilizing multiple CPU cores.

Multithreading is the best answer for scalability in an application, and Node.js – which is based on JavaScript – provides it. Multithreading allows you to increase the number of threads in a program, which improves scalability.

4.    Mutable vs. Immutable

A changeable item can change its state or content. Immutable items, on the other hand, cannot be changed.

Everything is regarded as an object in Python. As a result, once an object is started, it is assigned a unique object ID, and the object’s type is specified at runtime. It is impossible to modify the type once it has been set. If the object is mutable, though, its state can be modified. Both immutable and mutable concepts are supported in Python. Custom classes, as well as the following objects: list, byte array, set, and dict, are usually mutable. Immutable objects in Python include the tuple, int, string, and float.

The following are examples of data that can be specified to a JavaScript variable:

Objects with many properties that are kept as references are referred to as reference types. When a reference assigns a value from one variable to another, the value in the original variable is copied into the new variable as well.

String, integers, Boolean, symbol, null, and undefined are examples of primitive types, which are data that is neither an object nor contains methods. In JS, all primitive elements are immutable. Arrays and Objects, on the other hand, are mutable.

5.    Inheritance

One of the four essential ideas of object-oriented programming languages is inheritance. One class inherits the characteristics and methods of another class, the superclass, under this idea.

As previously said, JS is not regarded as a pure object-oriented language since, although it introduced the concept of classes; it only enables inheritance via a prototype-based inheritance model. Python, on the other hand, adopts a class-based inheritance paradigm as an OOP language.

6.    REPL

Developers that use Python have REPL (Read-Eval-Print-Loop) installed by default; it is a built-in approach. JavaScript, on the other hand, does not provide a REPL because its code is mostly used in browsers. However, if developers install Node.js, they can use this technique in JavaScript.

7.    Strongly-typed vs Weakly-typed

On the one hand, Python is tightly typed; therefore there are no implicit type conversions. JavaScript, but on the other side, is weakly typed, which means it makes implicit transformations between unrelated kinds.

8.    Multiparadigm

Python and JavaScript both support a wide range of programming paradigms. OO programming, imperative programming, procedural programming, and functional programming, are all supported by the first. Except procedural programming, JavaScript supports the same concepts.

9.    Function Arguments

Python throws an exception if a function is invoked with invalid parameters. In addition, the programming language allows for certain extra parameter passing syntax.

When functions in JavaScript are invoked with invalid parameters, their value is immediately regarded as “undefined.” As a result, JS isn’t as concerned with accurate parameters as Python is. Furthermore, any additional arguments will be considered as special arguments by JS.

10. Libraries and Modules

Python is a programming language that comes with all of the necessary tools. It has several bundled modules and libraries that enable developers to do a variety of tasks in data analytics, scientific computing, machine learning, and other areas.

Although there aren’t as many ready-to-use modules in JavaScript as there are in Python, it does contain date, JSON, math, and regexp. In addition, the host environment provides additional capabilities for JavaScript.

Comparison table: JavaScript vs. Python:

Sr#JavaScriptPython
Python is a general-purpose high-level programming language with a focus on readability.The ECMAScript specification defines JavaScript as a programming language.  
 2It’s a scripting language that can be used to create both desktop and web apps.  It’s a scripting language for the client.  
 3It employs a paradigm of inheritance based on classes.  It makes use of a prototype-based inheritance system.  
 4When the function is invoked with incorrect parameters, an exception is thrown.  It doesn’t matter whether or not the functions are called with the correct parameters.  
 5In Python, list, set, and dict are changeable, whereas int, bool, tuple, and Unicode are immutable.  Only arrays and objects are mutable in JavaScript.  
 6It employs a programming paradigm that is comparable to C++, C, and Java.  It is a web browser language that is one of the most simple to use.  
 7It comes with a large standard library.  It just has a small number of utility objects.  

JavaScript vs. Python: Example:

JavaScriptPython
<script> 
// JavaScript program to print ‘Hello world’
console.log(‘Hello World’); 
</script> 
# Python program to print ‘Hello world’
print(“Hello World”)

Conclusion:

JavaScript and Python did not gain the most popular programming languages by accident. They’ve produced highly effective libraries and frameworks over the years, as well as accumulated all of the necessary prerequisites to enable developers to flourish in software development.

Set aside their differences, there is no such thing as a bad choice when it comes to Python and JavaScript. We propose that developers combine the two languages to get the most out of both, possibly utilizing Python for the backend and JavaScript for the frontend.