“A programming language is a formal language made up of a set of strings that generate various types of machine code. Programming languages are a type of computer language that is used to implement algorithms in computer programming.”
Thousands of programming languages have been developed in imperative and declarative forms. Two main components include syntax and semantics.
The syntax of a computer language refers to a collection of grammar and spelling standards… When a user tries to run a command without using proper syntax, it creates a syntax error, which usually results in the application failing.
The field of semantics is concerned with the scientific study of the meaning of programming languages.
Input: Data and orders are entered into the computer through it.
Output: Getting your results out of the computer is called output.
Looping and conditionals: Testing to see if a condition is true or false, and cycling over a sequence of instructions until a condition is met are both examples of looping and conditionals.
Arithmetic operations (mathematics): Using your data to perform mathematical computations
Variables and data structures are used to store data that may change over time.
The year 2022 is shaping up to be a great year for programming and different programming languages have been developed in the computing field to develop mechanisms for defined pieces of data. The top five programming languages in 2022 are:
Node.js is built to support real-time and push-based systems. Due to its single-threaded nature, it is mostly utilized for non-blocking, event-driven servers.
In 2022, Node.js will be a massive trend that will continue to grow. Furthermore, it has advantages that make it the greatest option for software developers.
2. Python is at second spot in Programming Languages:
Python is one of the most popular programming languages on the market. Python is a programming language that can be used in a variety of contexts. Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language that is interpreted.
Python aims for a cleaner, less cluttered syntax, and grammar while providing developers with a variety of coding methods to choose from.
Python was created with the intention of being extremely extendable (with modules). Because of its compact modularity, it’s very popular for adding programmable interfaces to existing systems.
Python’s design includes some support for Lisp-style functional programming. List comprehensions, dictionaries, sets, and generator expressions are all included, as well as filter, map, and reduce functions.
Two modules (itertools and functools) in the standard library implement functional tools taken from Haskell and Standard ML.
Python’s developers work hard to avoid premature optimization. Python’s developers want the language to be enjoyable to use. It is designed to be a language that is simple to understand. Its formatting is clean and uncomplicated, and it frequently uses English terms instead of punctuation in other languages. All variables and functions start with lowercase. We write Capital letters for Classes.
Python generics include built-in collection classes which have one or more type parameters.
Our types can be parameterized in it because every time we entered a generic type, a new type is formed. Templates are formed in python like a python string template.
Python doesn’t use curly brackets but sometimes uses only a semicolon as punctuation but this case is very rare. In python, semantic includes the meaning of the statement.
Python’s classes allow programmers to define their own kinds and classes, which are commonly used in object-oriented programming.
Python is one of the most popular programming languages for online development, especially when combined with frameworks like Flask, Bottle, Tornado, Hug, and Django. As a result, it will surely become more important in deep learning, data science, and machine learning.
Python has influenced many other languages like Boo, Cobra, Swift, Groovy, Julia, and many others. Python is a suitable backend language in this field of technology because of its emphasis on code readability and its huge libraries and frameworks. Furthermore, Python provides a large number of machine learning libraries, such as Keras, TensorFlow, and Scikit-learn.
Python is constantly developing new versions, allowing us to focus on the important challenges and assisting us in delivering excellent products to our customers.
It’s a terrific tool to know for the future especially in 2022 because it’s prevalent in so many different sectors.
3. C++ is at third spot in Programming Languages:
C++ is a programming language that builds on the C language. It’s a programming language that blends low-level and high-level language capabilities. C++ APIs are used by the majority of CAD programmers. Mechanical engineers can use a programming language like C++ because they are more intimately tied to robotics and automation.
32 keywords are used in C++ out of which 11 are reserved and are not essential but they make it readable. These keywords help in programming C++ desired characters. Generics are used only with help of templates which is a powerful tool. This concept makes its data type a parameter and the same code is not written for different data types. Template parameters are never allowed in C++.
Semantic includes all the rules that tell us the meaning of instruction. Syntax includes main functions, header files, and program code. The main function is necessary for the program execution.
The language has evolved greatly over time, and modern C++ now includes object-oriented, generic, and functional features, as well as memory manipulation capabilities.
Four types of memory manipulation are in C++:
1-Static storage duration objects
2-Thread storage duration objects
3-Automatic storage duration objects
4-Dynamic storage duration objects
Is C++ suitable for video games?
Modern video games require software that is both resource-intensive and performance-critical. C++ is an excellent choice since it allows for more parameter and memory management control as well as minimal resource utilization and efficient database and system programming.
EXAMPLE: 4A Engine, Adventure game studio, Aleph one and Anura, etc are famous game engines that are made under C++ Programming.
C was the older version of C++. Many Industries have switched to C++ because C++ can perform things that C cannot. This contains simple polymorphism as well as template-based code generation at compile time.
Moreover, this is especially useful for containers, which are easily C’s worst flaw. It also supports user-defined primitive-like types such as vectors and matrices with operator support, as well as user-defined pointer-like types (smart handles) that save a lot of time (also saves lots of time).
Hardware is now developed for C++ usage patterns and is progressively being designed for the needs of high-level interpreted languages. The majority of the other common anti-C++ claims are simply outdated in today’s technology.
4. Go is at fourth:
Golang or Go was developed by Google engineers. In November 2009, Go was publicly announced and in March 2012, version 1.0 was released. Go was designed from the ground up for networking and infrastructure-related applications. It was designed to take the place of popular server-side languages like
Java and C++. Go is now utilized in a wide range of applications, including cloud and server-side apps, DevOps, command-line tools, and more.
Go outperforms Python in almost all benchmarks. Go also beats Java, which is commonly regarded as being substantially faster than Python. If you need a program that will load software swiftly, Go is the best language for that.
Go has a compact syntax compared to other languages and is simple to learn. Variables are not specified in this language. The codes are concise and readable. You can fit the most of information in your head, so you won’t have to spend much time checking things up. It’s also incredibly tidy and simple to read. Go supports the generic system in beta version by the use of empty interface types. Two generic structures involved are maps and slices. They can do static type checking for values. These values are not stored as interface types. They have stored themselves.
YouTube, Kubernetes containers, and Google’s download server dl.google.com are among the Google websites and systems that use Go programming. Novartis, The BBC, Dropbox, sound cloud and send Grid also use Go.
Features that made Go wide usage are its:
2-First class functions
4-Rich standard library
5-Actor model-based rich concurrency
Despite differing viewpoints on Go’s qualities and applicability, this programming language has already attracted the attention of major corporations. Among them are Google, BBC, Uber, Docker, Intel, Medium, Baidu, and Alibaba, and others.
In Go, there is no need to specify the variable types.
Why Go is not famous?
It isn’t the most widely used programming language on the planet. There are a small number of developers who use it and there are valid reasons for that. Go is a young and immature game. It’s a stripped-down language that lacks a lot of the syntactical sugar found in other languages.
There is no type of hierarchy in Go, despite the fact that it contains types and functions and allows for object-oriented programming. Furthermore, unlike C++ or Java, Go methods can be constructed for any form of data, including built-in types like plain, “unboxed” integers.
5. Kotlin is at 5th spot:
Kotlin has a spring framework. The top three frameworks reflect the most common use of Kotlin for Android and web development, with Kotlin Android Extensions being the most popular, mockito-kotlin for use with the Mockito mocking framework for unit tests coming in second, and RxKotlin for use with the asynchronous programming library RxJava coming in third.
Kotlin isn’t a challenging academic language. Its syntax is well-known among OOP programmers. Beginners, as well as experienced programmers, will find it easy to understand. There are some modified constructors and variable declarations, so it’s a little different from Java.
Easy to learn:
Kotlin is significantly easier to learn than Java because it doesn’t require any prior expertise in mobile app development.
Why Kotlin is not popular?
As developers gain experience with the language, they’ll probably push some features (such as extensions and inline functions) too far, making the codebase inaccessible to newcomers.
With the usage of functions, Kotlin also offers procedural programming. In addition to Java and C++, it becomes the third fully supported language for Android. Kotlin is still the most extensively used programming language on Android as of 2022, with Google predicting that 70 percent of the top 1000 apps on the Play Store are built-in Kotlin language. Variables may be defined as read-only with the val keyword or mutable with the var keyword.
Static variables and methods can reside within a class body in Kotlin. Without the requirement for a superfluous class level, static objects and functions can be defined at the package’s top level.
The entry in this program is by the name “main” which is also used in java, C++, and Go.
Kotlin supports a JvmName annotation for Java compatibility, which specifies a class name that is used when the package is viewed from a Java project. Kotlin contains generics that are different from Java’s. Java only recognizes use site variance while Kotlin knows defining variance on declaration site.
To avoid visibility for a top-level declaration like class members, Kotlin has keywords like public, internal, protected, and private. There are 17 keywords in this language. They can be used both as an identifier and keywords in context. Any function that is within the curly bracket is executed. So codes are executed in this way. The databases used in it are SQL and SQL lite.
Kotlin performs arithmetic, comparison, assignment, and other operations by their operator which are the symbols that perform operations on values and variables. Generics are used in Kotlin which helps in typecasting, type safety, and checking code at compile time for parametrized types.
Softwares under Kotlin:
All main Java IDEs, including IntelliJ IDEA, Android Studio, and Eclipse, support Kotlin. A command-line compiler is also provided, which offers simple support for compiling and running apps.
While Kotlin is most commonly used on Android, it can also be used on other platforms. This also makes it simple to use Kotlin instead of Java on the backend. With the exception of a few minor annoyances, you can pretty much start writing new features in Kotlin within your Java project. It is also used in building web pages. Many apps, from the hottest startups to Fortune 500 corporations, are already written in Kotlin.